Not hindered from appealing to Re when he speaks. C. G. Jung had to say a few things on this problem. I shall use the term alienation to denote a certain mood of existence. It looks as if the surrounding society were to be characterized as suffering from a severe loss of ordering reality, manifesting itself in the vulgarian character of the argument; as if the troubles of the age were to be understood, not simply as a breakdown of government on the pragmatic level, perhaps caused by the disfavor of the gods, but as events somehow connected with a disintegration of existential order. We know life ending in death to be only part of the life we experience. For belief, when losing contact with truth experienced, not only provokes objection but even gives aid to the enemy by creating the doctrinaire environment in which objection can become socially effective. It is a clash between two theologies: the philosophers abolish the gods of the polytheistic tradition and identify their own God as the Nous who reveals himself, through noetic search, as the Ground of existence. But how does the “historical Christ,” with a fixed date in history, fit into this philosophical conception? Since the beginning of the century, the situation has changed substantially. 3. The symbols “life”-“death” are not synonyms for man’s spatiotemporal existence, its coming-into-being and its passing away, seen from the outside, but express man’s consciousness of existing in tension toward the divine ground of his existence. The cosmos may be considered a demonic prison, so that the purpose of human action will be reduced to finding the means of escape from it, as in gnosis. In our civilization, the sequence has run its course twice: once in antiquity, and once in medieval and modern times. The imagery of afterlife may be richly elaborated, as in apocalyptic and Gnostic symbolisms; and then again, the mythical imagery may disappear under pressure of enlightenment and demythization, to be replaced by the hedonistic imagery of perfect realms to be achieved through progress and revolutionary action, as in our own time. With regard to the symbol “immortality” we can say therefore: The imagery of afterlife originates in the compact experience of cosmic reality; the symbolism of life structured by death originates in man’s experience of his existence in tension toward the divine ground. . Set against this traditional conception, the “Dispute” must be considered an extraordinary, if not a revolutionary, event in the history of empire, inasmuch as it offers a substitute for the mediating function of the Pharaoh. Moreover, in the Epinomis he earnestly warned against discrediting traditional myth, because people whose faith in the myth is destroyed will not necessarily become philosophers, but rather will become spiritually disoriented and derail into some deficient mode of existence. Natürlich ist jeder Translucent the boys sofort bei Amazon im Lager und direkt lieferbar. The theme of judgment, it appears, is no more specific to Hellenic or Christian experiences than the symbols of alienation, sickness, imprisonment, and so forth; it rather is, like the others, a constant in the whole class of experiences from which the symbolism of immortality emerges. Let me advert, in conclusion, briefly to this problem, as we are living in an age of major disturbances from this source. Though the author of the “Dispute” and the modern philosopher move in the same type of field, their respective fields differ concretely, inasmuch as the issue of history is present in the Egyptian field only compactly, while in the modern Western field it has become an explicit theme for the philosopher as well as for the believer and the objector. There is no beyond in time to the struggle in time; or if we want to express the same thought in an older language, the civitas Dei and the civitas terrena are intermingled in history throughout its course from the beginning of mankind to its end. The attitude is regrettable; for a truth whose symbols have become opaque and suspect cannot be saved by doctrinal concessions to the Zeitgeist, but only by a return to the reality of experience which originally has engendered the symbols. In either case, the judgment of illusion rests on control experiences of the potentially or actually existent object outside the experience. Such reality can grow to its full presence, however, only through a growth of consciousness; and the consciousness of reality is made to grow precisely by Man’s dramatic resistance to the Soul’s counsel. At the turn from the second to the third century a.d., the vast, accumulated body of skeptical argument was collected and organized by Sextus Empiricus. wonder if Euripides’ words were true, when he says: And we really, it may be, are dead; in fact, I once heard one of our sages say that now were are dead, and the body is our tomb. When the reality of truth has declined to traditionalist belief in symbols, the scene is set for the appearance of unbelief and reasoned objection to belief. To time with its “post-,” or to the timeless where presumably there is no “post-“? Setting aside the brutality of the procedure, a philosopher will not be too happy about such doctrine, because he knows the tension of faith toward God to be not a Christian privilege but a trait of human nature. As far as the imperfect state of preservation permits us to understand the rationale of speech and counterspeech, the argument moves through three phases. In the realistic sense the “post-Christian age” is an antidoctrinal revolt which, having failed to recapture the reality of existential tension, has derailed into a new dogmatism. There are, second, the tensions on the level of deficient existence. The tristichs of the fourth sequence express the speaker’s faith in entering the fullness of life through death: Causing the choicest therein to be given to the temples. Login via your But on the other hand, it has to be culturally late enough for an exegesis of the experience to be so articulate that the connection between the truth experienced and the symbols expressing it will be intelligible beyond a doubt. To one part this assent is determined by the general readiness, in our society, to think (if think is the right word) in doctrinal form. His psychology of projection has remained one of the pillars of the ideologist’s creed ever since, and one may even say it is a stronger force today than it was in Feuerbach’s time, as in our century it has been fortified by the psychoanalysis of Freud and Jung. But social predominance of one pole does not abolish the other one and together with it the tension. The drama of fall and redemption may assume the form of a cosmological myth, as in Gnostic systems; or of an historical myth, as in Marxian speculation. Immortality: Experience and Symbol -pt 1--When doctrinal truth becomes socially dominant, even the knowledge of the processes by which doctrine derives from the original account, and the original account from the engendering experience, may get lost. Iron laws of segmented history are constructed, in order to frighten the contemporaries into a state of consciousness that seems desirable to the respective doxic thinker. . Recent years have seen new work by established authors E. L. Doctorow, Louise Erdrich, Seamus Heaney, and A.S. Byatt, as well as new voices-such as, Meghan O'Rourke, Roy Kesey, Kellie Wells, and Ron Rash-featured in KR. The imagery of immortality is engendered by the primary experience of man’s conduration with the cosmos. For if Nous is both the god beyond man and the divine entity within man, then the two are liable to collapse into one as soon as they are not firmly held apart by the tension of existence. A characterization of this type is possible, of course, only if the alternative to the deficient mode is a living force in the author, so that he can use the presence of reality experienced as a standard by which to judge society. A later variant may have differentiated an aspect of truth experienced that has been insufficiently articulated in an earlier one; while the compact earlier variant may have expressed aspects of truth which, under pressure of a newly differentiated and therefore more heavily accented problem, do not receive their proper weight in, or have disappeared completely from, the later one. For the divine and human partners to the tension are not the immortals and mortals of tradition, but a new type of God and man. But the loss of self can also assume the form of wickedness and consent to it. In the passage, however, the conflict is not expressed with full clarity, because tradition is strong enough to overlay the newly discovered tension of existence with the older symbolization of gods and men. First rank among them must be accorded to the psychology developed by Feuerbach in his Essence of Christianity. . Unfortunately, however, the Soul belongs to the sophisticated variety and proves impervious to conventional promises. The experience of cosmic reality includes in its compactness the existential tension; and the differentiated consciousness of existence has no reality without the cosmos in which it occurs. First, the intellectual structure of the objection: the proposition is a piece of loose thinking, quite common in everyday speech. Man is incensed by the baseness of the advice and expresses his distaste: Before this outburst the Soul falls silent; its resources are exhausted. Man, while existing in time, experiences himself as participating in the timeless. ©2000-2020 ITHAKA. The crack in the precarious balance of a Christian order becomes unmistakable in the High Middle Ages, with the ominous bifurcation of faith and fideism in the parallel movements of mysticism and nominalism. The problems arise from the changing modes of experience and the corresponding plurality of variant symbols. As Hebrews 11:i has it: “Faith is the substance of things hoped for, and the evidence of things unseen.” And finally, the same mode also pertains to the meaning of the symbols, as they convey no other truth than that of the engendering consciousness. Clement presents us with the model case of a single body of alienation symbols that can serve in three experiential contexts differing as widely as pagan philosophy, gnosis, and Christianity. For the time in which the ideologue places his construction is not the time of existence in tension toward eternity, but a symbol by which he tries to pull the timeless into identity with the time of his existence. The argument is carefully phased so as to lead up to the spiritual outburst–which could not occur unless there was a spirit to burst out. For in doctrinal argument symbols are erected into entities: and when he participates in it, he involves himself in the error that Whitehead has named the fallacy of misplaced concreteness. As a consequence, the point has come into view on which hinges a philosophical understanding of history: that truth experienced is excluded from the subfield, while the larger field is characterized by its inclusion. His Man is not everyman, and therefore, he cannot translate his personal breakthrough into a revolution against sacred kingship. Even to Aristotle man is still the mortal who can think only mortal thought; if he can think about the divine nevertheless, he is enabled to do so by some part in him, the intellect, that is a divine entity. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions After many years that he was held in captivity. With regard to the structure of the field, then, we can distinguish two principal dimensions. Whatever the subject of which immortality be predicated, the symbol pertains to the lasting or duration of an entity. The eighteenth-century revolt, enacted in the name of science and reason against the incubus of doctrinaire theology and metaphysics, was certainly an “epoch,” and the unfolding of its momentum up to the present definitely marks an “age” in history. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. The counsel sets off the spiritual crisis that had been in the making. For the unknown author does not radically break with the primary experience but, the phenomena of social disorder notwithstanding, preserves his faith in the cosmos. Even though we should have to reject all traditional symbolizations of cosmic reality as incompatible with our present mode of experience, we still are living in the reality of the cosmos and not in the universe of physics, the brainwashing propaganda of our scientistic ideologues notwithstanding. recognized in two natures . If in this manner we transpose the essence of the argument into American colloquialism, its seriousness will become suspect. As a consequence, the complaint goes on: Every man has a downcast face toward his fellows. The living god Man will shoulder the burden of the living god Pharaoh who has failed. Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. Though the reality of tension between the timeless and time is lost, thus, the form of the tension is preserved by the dream act of forcing the two poles into oneness. The Egyptian “Dispute” has hitherto escaped attention–but I would not be surprised if sooner or later it were used to extrapolate the history of gnosis beyond Iran to its true beginning in Egypt. It may be translated, for instance, into simple propositions, rendering what the translator considers its essential meaning, for use on the secondary level of instruction and initiation. For I tell you I should not. This is the very tension in which the philosopher lives and moves himself. Symbolisms of alienation are conventionally associated with gnosis. The persuasive trick of carving history into ascending phases or states of consciousness, for the purpose of placing the carver’s consciousness at the top of the ladder, can be performed only under the assumption that man’s consciousness is world-immanent and nothing but that; the fact that man is capable of apprehending: The point of intersection of the timeless. The nature of the In-Between as a mutual participation of human and divine is symbolized by the Platonic methexis and the Aristotelian metalepsis, the active life in the tension by the existential virtues previously mentioned. . Both society and history are man written large. Add both to Cart Add both to List. For their adequate expression, the two types of experience engender two different sets of symbols. In fact, the public scene has become so crowded with them that, in the twentieth century, the Open Society–Popper’s, not Bergson’s–had to be invented, in order to prevent public collisions between private opinions. Moreover, the mode of nonexistence pertains also to the experience itself, inasmuch as it is nothing but a consciousness of participation in nonexistent reality. The problems posed by the symbol “immortality,” or rather by the pair “mortality”-“immortality,” will be brought into focus by the following statements: 1. A St. Augustine, for instance, was well aware that the structure of history is the same as the structure of personal existence; and he did not hesitate to use, inversely, historical symbols to express the reality of personal tension. They have left, as the exegesis of their experience, the literary corpus of classic philosophy. We can characterize the ideologue’s “post-Christian age,” therefore, as a symbol engendered by his libidinous dream of self-salvation. For the symbols of alienation are recognizable as hypostases of the poles of existential tension. The pair “mortality”-“immortality” is related to the pair “life”-“death” and its double meanings. For the ideological revolt against the older type of doctrine derives indeed the better part of its strength from the contemporaneous experience of power to be gained over nature through the use of science and reason.
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