Formation of the World Uyghur Congress (1989-2006), Chinese Anti-Terrorism Policy and Context (2012-2016), Entrenching the Narratives (Aug 2018-Jan 2020), U.S. Pursues Unilateral Action (Jan 2020-present), On the Nature of Unsubstantiated Allegations, Chinese Perspectives on the Problem of Terrorism, Poverty Alleviation and Economic Development in Xinjiang, Overview of Chinese Minority/Religious Policies, Views from Xinjiang: People, Cultures, and History. While focused on Twitter and its pushing of American governmental agenda, this article has a helpful section on the U.S. Agency for Global Media, and demonstrates clearly how the agency and its constituent platforms including Radio Free Asia are nothing more than “soft-power arm[s] of the US government,” a context that should be taken into mind when consuming its contents. Mainly, ASPI analyzes “28 facilities,” but alleges 181 (Agence France-Presse) or “as many as 1,200” (Adrian Zenz) such facilities, although an examination of their cited sources reveals no evidentiary basis for such allegations. Chinese investigations allege that the riots were enflamed by foreign entities such as the WUC to undermine regional stability and unity. Whether it is Congress trying to pass a budget or an interest group trying to motivate members to contact lawmakers, organizations must overcome collective action problems to be productive. Employment and Labor Rights in Xinjiang. As an aside, due to Facebook’s failure to provide information to the Chinese government following the attacks, Western social media was banned from China. ➤ 2020 October 19-22 - Diplomatic envoys posted in China from 20 Arab states and the Arab League visit Xinjiang. September 28, 2020. The benefits sought by unions, such as higher wages, collective bargaining rights, and safer working conditions, are often enjoyed by all workers regardless of whether they are members. Dans cette optique, un guide Egalim est en cours de rédaction par la Chambre pour « mieux connaître les produits proposés » et « une boîte à outils de commandes publiques » devrait être mise à disposition des producteurs. ➤ 2020 July 30 – Amy K. Lehr of CSIS publishes a brief “Addressing Forced Labor in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region: Toward a Shared Agenda.” Particularly noticeable about this brief is its emphasis on the XPCC, with assertions cited backed up by sources from Radio Free Asia, Uyghur Human Rights Project, and Citizen Power Initiatives for China (an otherwise opaque organization based in Brookline, Massachusetts founded by Yang Jianli, a self-described “Tiananmen survivor”). ➤ 2020 June 17 – President Trump signs the Uyghur Human Rights Policy Act into law, ending a process started after it was first passed as a bill by the Senate on September 11, 2019. This was after a career as a business owner, Vice-Chairwoman of the Xinjiang Federation of Industry and Commerce, Vice-Chairwoman of the Xinjiang Association of Women Entrepreneurs, and as a member of the 8th Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. Burmahan later received the national honor of “Model of the People” and was personally recognized by President Xi Jinping. This white paper provides an overview of the employment and labor in Xinjiang, providing statistics, giving personal anecdotes, and highlighting labor laws and the efforts being made to improve them, in the context of poverty alleviation programs. August 25, 2020. For an example of news coverage on Xinjiang’s society after this notification but before the De-radicalization Regulations of 2017, see Daily Sabah, “Uighurs do not face harsh oppression, Anadolu Agency reporters claim.” Daily Sabah, July 8, 2015. Both of them still hold high positions (Chairman of the Executive Committee and President, respectively) in the WUYC’s successor organization, the World Uyghur Congress (WUC). A more recent white paper about China’s progress on human rights issues. A white paper focusing specifically on the vocational centers and their operations. Prior to assuming the post of the United States’ foremost diplomat, Pompeo had a long and distinguished history of being a relentless Islamophobe. ➤ 2020 August 17 – Radio Free Asia reports that Xinjiang hospital kills babies, relying on witnesses and Adrian Zenz’s mathematically suspect June 29 report. ➤ 2020 August 15-16 – Carl Zha and Daniel Dumbrill both release interviews held with Arslan Hidayat, an activist noted for spreading many lies about Xinjiang by faking captions and taking Douyin and other videos out of context on social media (see this Twitter thread, which also exposes similar lies made by CJ Werlemen, who would shortly afterwards write an article alleging 9 million incarcerated in Xinjiang). Of these six, four arrived in the West on or after 1989 (Abbas 1989; Isa 1994; Turkel 1995; Kadeer 2005, as the cause célèbre of Turkel). C’est un premier pied dans la restauration scolaire. Which of the following is the best example of a solidary benefit? ➤ 2020 August 25 – CGTN releases a new documentary collecting the experiences of students of the vocational centers, Lies and truth: Vocational education and training in Xinjiang. Of particular note, it was not until the recent decade that Chinese language was taught to minority children starting in the first grade (previously it started in the fourth grade). This video from before the 2018 controversy covers many aspects of developmental work in Xinjiang, including education, labor transfer, grassroots governmental work, and living standards for people finding employment outside Xinjiang. (reprinted from Zhongguo Minzu Bao (China Ethnic News), August 13, 2010, 6), A Uyghur scholar of bilingual education and Turkic languages reflects on the changing situation of bilingual education in Xinjiang, noticing seven changes from her personal experience and leaving three recommendations for the future. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! “Epic of Manas: The history of Kirgiz in Xinjiang.” YouTube video, 1:15. How is it possible to get people to work when there is a disincentive to do so? May 8, 2020. November 16, 2019. Kasim, Muhabbat (Muhabaiti Hasimu). “Female Imams Blaze Trail Among China’s Muslims.” NPR. These sources describe a small slice of Xinjiang’s poverty alleviation efforts and economic development initiatives, while exploring the real and concrete impacts these programs have on the lives of ordinary people. The article ends with a curious line: “And so it appears the future of female imams in China is threatened — not by the state, not by resistance from inside Islam, but by the forces of market economics.” This seems to reflect the shifting and inconsistent media agenda on China: from ‘ruthlessly capitalist’ forces stymying Chinese state efforts to preserve minority cultures and religious practices to godless Communist entity seeking to wipe out Islam. (credit: modification of work by Neil Cooler). An article outlining the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons and how it was manipulated to serve consensus-building for war against Assad. A simple news report from 2010 that explains the plans of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region to have widespread bilingual education in the autonomous region by 2020. ➤ 2020 September 15 – China agrees to and will arrange for European Union diplomats in China to visit Xinjiang. These short episodes exploring the heritages of minority nationalities who consider modern-day Xinjiang their homeland are as follow. As a central component of our organization, it creates relationships that are demanding, like our activities, while enhancing our employees’well-being. Rachel Caron. While Western media often paints Xinjiang as a black box, Xinjiang has in fact never been closed or restricted to outside visitors until the outbreak of COVID-19 in January 2020 (unlike Tibet Autonomous Region, which requires most foreigners to acquire special permits to visit). “Fascinating China” Series. The white paper “Employment and Labor Rights in Xinjiang” provides further that from 2014 to 2019 “Xinjiang provided training sessions [vocational education] to an average of 1.29 million urban and rural workers [annually], of which 451,400 were in southern Xinjiang.” This 1.29 million figure here is for all vocational education, not just persons who undergo vocational education as a part of the de-radicalization program. Grayzone rebuttal by Ben Norton & Ajit Singh, The Press release actually reads: “Committee Experts, in the dialogue that followed, congratulated China for creating extraordinary prosperity and lifting hundreds of millions of people out of poverty, including in the eight multi-ethnic provinces and regions, but remain concerned over the growing inequality, particularly for ethnic minorities who continued to disproportionately experience poverty… A great source of concern was racial discrimination in the context of laws fighting terrorism, separatism and extremism, particularly against Tibetans, Uyghurs, and other ethnic minorities.” (As it turns out, Gay McDougall was both the only American at the meeting and the only person at the meeting to bring up "internment camps"), ➤ 2018 August 20 – While being interviewed by Max Blumenthal from the Grayzone, Omer Kanat admits that the “one million” figure was from “Western media estimates.”. ➤ 2019 February 22-27 – A group of 11 journalists from Indonesia and Malaysia, as part of the ASEAN Elites China Tour 2019, visit Xinjiang. In many ways, the organization’s stance is analogous to James Madison’s defense of factions mentioned earlier in this chapter. ➤ 2019 August 17 – China releases the white paper “Vocational Education and Training in Xinjiang” (this is the white paper that states that “No terrorist incidents have occurred in Xinjiang for nearly three years since the education and training started.”). (Guangming) [the interviewee Mansur Zakir speaks in Uzbek], “Fascinating China EP49: Costume of the Tajik Ethnic Group.” YouTube video, 2:52. State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China. “The Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps: An Insider’s Perspective.” Blavatnik School of Government Working Paper Series (BSG-WP-2018/023) (2018). « Demain, les producteurs seront sûrement sur plusieurs plateformes de vente. La restauration collective est un mammouth qui a du mal à démarrer ». It was among the first four intangible heritages registered by China to the UNESCO’s Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2008, alongside Guqin, Kunqu Opera, and Mongolian Long Song (Urtiin Duu). CGTN. It was registered by China in UNESCO’s Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2009. The author notes that thriving Hui Muslim communities in China have also been targeted by terrorist attacks. September 21, 2017. ➤ 2019 January 25-31 – A media delegation from Egypt visits Xinjiang. These sources document the scope and extent of the recent history of terrorism in China, which received little attention in the Western press. On one hand, students have been very active on college campuses at various times over the past half-century. 2018. State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China. Read them all. ➤ 2019 November – Sometime in November, Former Deputy Speaker of the Indonesian House of Representatives Fahri Hamzah led a delegation to visit Xinjiang. Fewer still could speak to the autonomous region's complex political, cultural, and religious history as well as to its complex legacies as a crossroads between diverse peoples over many centuries. We will use “Uyghur” in accordance with the common spelling in Western dialogue, except when referring specifically to the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. This is a short video showing daily life at an Islamic educational institute in China. Interest groups often have to contend with disincentives to participate, particularly when individuals realize their participation is not critical to a group’s success. A general overview essay about the longstanding decades-long strategy of the United States against China. State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China. For more information contact us at email@example.com or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. September 29, 2020. 13224 prohibiting transactions with “Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism” on September 3rd, 2002, but would only formally designate the ETIM/TIP as a terrorist organization on April 29th, 2004, although this was never reflected on the Department of State’s website in 16 years. It is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. “Xinjiang Muslims welcome govt’s efforts on hajj journeys.” Global Times. In fact, most people take no action on most issues, either because they do not feel strongly enough or because their action will likely have little bearing on whether a given policy is adopted. Has a short section near the end containing comments by international observers to Xinjiang. CCTV. In this context, it is important to note that the U.S. and its allies are in the minority when it comes to its critiques of Chinese policy in Xinjiang. ➤ 2003 December 15 – China designates the ETIM/TIP, the WUYC, and two other organizations as terrorist organizations. July 19, 2019. Le plus dur, c’est de changer les habitudes de consommation des élèves ». ➤ 2020 September 23 – ASPI launches a “Xinjiang Data Project” (reportedly mapping “380 sites of suspected re-education camps, detention centres and prisons that have been built or expanded since 2017”) with an accompanying report on “Cultural erasure.” The former in particular has been heavily criticized online for designating common schools and offices as concentration camps and listing the renovated Keriya Aitika Mosque as demolished. Buzkashi is a traditional Central Asian sport that often involves playing polo with a sheep carcass while on horseback. ➤ 2019 September 9-12 – Diplomats from 16 African countries (including Burundi, Djibouti, Uganda, Lesotho, Sudan and Zimbabwe) and the African Union visit Xinjiang. May 4, 2020. Pakistani diplomat Mumtaz Zahra Baloch reported that the delegation was given full and open access to three vocational centers and that she “did not find any instance of forced labor or cultural and religious repression” during her tours of the region. March 18, 2020. December 11, 2019. ➤ 2020 September 14 – The United States restricts cotton and apparel imports from Xinjiang, citing “forced labor.” Both cotton and apparel industries are important to poverty alleviation and economic development in Xinjiang. Lu, Yin & Zhang Xinyuan. Total 45 countries on a joint statement delivered by Cuba supporting China on Xinjiang (text not yet released, see release by the Permanent Mission of the People’s Republic of China to the United Nations), According to Jerome Taylor (AFP) and the WUC, the 45 countries are Angola, Bahrain, Belarus, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Comoros, Congo (Republic of), Cuba, Dominica, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Gabon, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Iran, Iraq, Kiribati, Korea (Democratic People’s Republic of), Laos, Madagascar, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Palestine, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, Yemen, Zimbabwe.